First of all we have to say that scrap is being processed mainly because of the necessity to reduce its size for transportation from the scrap yard where it is collected to the steel mill or foundry where it is used. Once scrap reaches the scrap yard where it is processed it is transformed into a product and with smelters requiring more and more a high quality product specific equipment and processes are required in order to obtain the highest possible value. The value is defined by the purity , size and density of the product sold to steel mills and foundries.
There are three different ways to process scrap metal and these can be summarized as follows:
- Scrap baling
- Scrap shearing
- Scrap shredding
In this article we will focus on the first two.
Baling can be divided into two subcategories, high density baling and low density baling, also called logging or soft baling.
Logging is a process that involves ELV, End Of Live Vehicles, or cars. Also it is related to scrap which contains impurities or various un-separated materials. These are baled into a low density log or soft bale. Logs are mainly prepared to reduce volume of scrap while increasing its density for cost effective transportation to a shredder where a further process is required in order to properly prepare scrap for the melting process (refer to the shredding section of this document).
Below a picture of a typical scrap baler – logger
G.P.S. mobile ELV and light scrap baler
Baling is a process that involves by and large clean and homogeneous scrap (like cuttings, cans, litho sheets, etc.). Bales are typically produced in a three or two compression baler and have a very high density. The steel mills and foundries are very happy with this product as it has optimum density and contains clean material.
The most versatile way of processing scrap is by means of a scrap shear. These machines can be used to process a variety of different scrap sorts and are able to vary also the quality and type of product produced. Scrap shear balers for instance will allow scrap shearing but will also bale and log scrap efficiently. The shear can be used to produce various lengths from an average 80-60 cm to a foundry grade of 30-40 cm.
Shears are indicated usually by their shear force, thus a 550 ton shear is a scrap shear that will generate 550 tons of shearing capacity.
GPS Scrap Shears are ranging from 550 tons to 1200 tons and have a charging box from 5 meter to 8 meter in length. They can also be equipped with pre-loading tables which guarantee higher daily performance of the shear.
See below a picture of a typical scrap shear baler combination.
We will dedicate more in-depth articles to the single scrap processing possibilities in the near future.